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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) - English/Chinese

ENGLISH | 中文

A.

Poultry Meat (Chicken and Duck)

   
Q1. Is it true that the reason our chicken grow so fast and meaty is because they are injected with hormones?
   

A1.

It is NOT true at all. Injecting hormones was practised back in the 1970’s and by the 1980’s the use of growth hormones are not permitted any more in livestock. If you happen to see a farmer injecting ‘milky coloured oil’ at the neck, it is not a hormone but a vaccine is being inoculated. Broiler chickens grow faster now mainly due to genetic improvement and the use of well formulated feed.

   
Q2. There are some branded chicken that claimed they are free of antibiotics, does it mean other non branded chicken used a lot of antibiotics?
   

A3.

The use of antibiotics is strictly regulated by the Poison’s Act 1952. They are only used therapeutically on chickens affected by specific diseases and must undergo a withdrawal period before being sold. The claim of being antibiotic free is only a form of quality assurance the producer wants to associate with its brand. It does not say other chickens contain antibiotics.

   
Q3. Is our market poultry meat free from antibiotic residue?
   

A3.

Generally speaking poultry meats sold in the markets are free from antibiotics. There are government authorities that monitor the situation regularly. The poultry industry as a whole is striving to move away from antibiotics use as growth promoters. They are only used therapeutically under veterinary supervision.

   
Q4. How do we know whether the chicken meat we bought from the market is free from antibiotics residue?
   

A4.

It is not possible to tell from sight alone. The best safeguard is to purchase branded chickens from reputable retail outlets.

   
Q5. Are antibiotics, growth promoters and other feed supplements safe to be used in poultry production?
   

A5.

These materials are generally safe if used correctly as directed. The government is in the process of registering all these products and their use is closely monitored.

   
Q6. I have heard and read articles regarding the safety of the meat of chicken and pork as chemicals and hormones were used to make the chicken and pigs increase in weight fast but are these chemicals and hormones safe for human?
   

A6.

There have been very significant advances in poultry and pork production globally. Genetic selection has become the main tool of growth and production efficiency and Malaysia has widely adopted these production methods. The use of chemicals and antibiotics has strictly been prohibited by the government and the industry has moved towards the use of natural products that supports the healthy growth of chickens and pigs through the promotion of beneficial micro-organisms in their gut. More and more chickens are now grown in an environmentally controlled poultry houses.

   
Q7. Is it safe to re-freeze chicken meat after it has been thawed in a fridge or outside on a counter?
   

A7.

It is generally not advisable to repeatedly thaw and freeze chicken meat as it affects quality very significantly. It is much better to divide chicken pieces in cooking portions before the initial freezing and thawed only once before cooking.

   
Q8. How long can poultry meat last if stored in the refrigerator?
   

A8.

Uncooked chickens stored at chill temperature (4’C) should be consumed within 2 to 3 days. Frozen chickens (-18’C) should not be stored for more than 6 months and should not be thawed and re-frozen during the whole period. It is better if they are consumed within 3 months.

   
Q9. Is dark chicken meat (e.g. drumstick) more nutritious than white meat (e.g. breast meat)?
   

A9.

The color of poultry meat is determined by the oxygen transport mechanism to the muscle cells.

Muscles used more frequently, must use myoglobin proteins which can transfer oxygen more efficiently to the muscle cells and get to be dark. This is why non-flying poultry drumsticks have dark meat, while breast meat is white as the medium which transfers oxygen in white meat is glycogen

When dark meat is cooked it turns the myoglobins to metmyoglobins, which is brown/gray.

Dark meats tend to contain more zinc, riboflavin, niacin, thiamin, vitamins B6 and B12, amino acids, iron than white meat. Dark beef contains about 11 times more zinc than tuna, and about 3 times as much iron than raw spinach. Chicken dark meat contain vitamins A, K, B6, B12, niacin, folate, pantothenic acid, minerals as selenium, phosphorus and zinc.

   
Q10. Which meat is better- chicken or duck in terms of healthy eating aspect?
   

A10.

There is not significant difference in the nutritional value of chicken and duck meats. Consumption is largely determined by taste and price affordability.

   
Q11. What are the nutrition facts of meat from different species?
   

A.11.

The information is as below:

Source: FAO (2007), Meat Process Technology.

   
Q12. I like chicken liver and small intestine, is it safe to eat?
   

A12.

Chicken liver and intestine are part of the internal organs of the chicken. While some consumers regard them as delicacies, their high minerals, vitamins and fat content in the liver should be taken into account and taken moderately only.

   
Q13. Some chicken stall traders claimed their chicken that comes from Bukit Mertajam, and the skin is more yellowish, and the price is slightly higher. What is the difference from other whitish chicken? Breed different? Fed with different type of feed?
   

A13.

It is a historical fact that Bukit Mertajam was among the first location where broiler chickens were produced in this country. The yellowish color in chickens results from being fed with extra amounts of carotenoids, the precursor for Vitamin A and thus appear to be different from normal chickens. Such chickens can be produced anywhere and is not exclusive to Bukit Mertajam.

   
Q14. Why is it that chicken meat price always fluctuate in the market?
   

A14.

The price of chicken in the market is determined by the laws of supply and demand. The produces are offered a buying price by the wholesalers based on their perceived level of supply compared to consumer demand at any particular time. Both supply and demand factors vary with time.

   
Q15. Are all chicken products Halal certified?
   

A15.

A product is only certified halal if it bears the JAKIM logo or the halal mark of the religious authority of the respective state the chicken is sold.

   
Q16. What is the size of chicken, duck, beef, mutton, pork and etc market in Malaysia?
   

A.16.

   

B.

Poultry Egg (Chicken and Duck)

   
Q1. What is the value of an egg?
   

A1.

Egg is rich in nutrients and a very affordable component of a healthy diet, containing varying amounts of essential vitamins and minerals needed by consumers as well asother beneficial food components.

   
Q2. How do you tell if eggs are fresh or not?
   

A2.

When a fresh egg is broken into a dish the egg yolk is firm, and not broken, and it is surrounded by the albumin (egg white) which appear fresh and untainted. Scientifically, you can test the freshness by measuring egg white (albumin) using an apparatus which measures the‘ Haugh Unit’.

   
Q3. Is it true that brown colour eggs are more nutritious than white shell eggs?
   

A3.

Different breeds of chickens can lay eggs with shell colour varying from white through brown and to rarer colours such as speckled green. There is absolutely no nutritional differences although there is a preference for one colour over another by different societies and countries.

   
Q4. Are there any nutritional differences between Brown Shell egg and White shell egg (Kampong Chicken Egg)? I believe Kampong Chicken egg is safer as they have no antibiotic residue. Is it true?
   

A4.

Eggs produced by backyard farms have a slightly different flavor from eggs produced in battery caged hens. This is mainly due to the feed source as backyard chickens forage for food from the environment while caged birds eat commercially prepared rations. The Department of Veterinary Services’s Salt Programme ensures proper usage of antibiotic. This programme also reduces incidence of salmonella contaminated egg where as Kampong Eggs have higher incidence of salmonella contamination.

   
Q5. Any difference between farm egg and kampong chicken egg, in term of nutrition value?
   

A5.

There is no nutritional value difference. Only the taste may be slightly different due to the dietary effect of the chickens that lay the eggs.

   
Q6. Some branded egg make claims they contains Omega-3 , but as I am told, it is not good to consume more than one egg a day as the egg yolk contains high cholesterol. May I know whether the Omega -3 is in egg yolk or egg white?
   

A6.

The omega-3 is found in the yolk. Just as with other foods, eggs should be eaten in moderation and proportionate to the life style of the individual. Physically active people can eat more as they burn more calories.

   
Q7. Many people said, egg yolk contains cholesterol, but I know a little bit there is a good high density cholesterol, so what is in the egg yolk? High or low density cholesterol?
   

A7.

Cholesterol is present in eggs. The term high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) refers to the mechanism of transport of cholesterol in the serum of the circulatory system. There is no reference to good or bad cholesterol in eggs.

   
Q8. Should we eat only the egg white or consume the whole egg (egg white and yolk) with regards to the cholesterol issue?
   

A8.

Cholesterol is mostly found in the yolk. It is more practical to consume the whole egg but practice moderation and balance with the consumption of other foods.

   
Q9. I have high cholesterol, is it safe for me to eat eggs on a daily basis?
   

A9.

The level of cholesterol in a person is determined by the sum of cholesterol intake and the amount manufactured by the body. It is safe to take eggs on a daily basis as long as there is a reduction in the intake of other foods containing cholesterol and lipids.

   
Q10. I notice that the branded egg’s egg yolk has more orange colour, does the farmer add something in the feed to make the yolk more orange color, is it safe ?
   

A10.

For egg yolk, the intensity of the yellowish or orange color is dependent on the level of carotenoids (xanthophylls) in the feed. Yellow corn and corn gluten, which is the main ingredient in poultry feed, do have substantial levels of carotenoids. To make egg yolk extra orange in color extra ‘reddish’ carotenoids called cathaxanthin, which can be found in marigold flower or pappricca (red chilli) is added. Carotenoids are precursors of vitamin A. Those are all natural ingredients.

   
Q11. What harm will occur from long term consumption of eggs with antibiotic residues?
   

A11.

Chicken eggs produced locally are under close scrutiny of the Department of Veterinary Services. No abuse of antibiotic is allowed. There is no known negative health effect from consuming eggs with antibiotic residues. The fear is the residues will cause bacteria in the body to develop resistance to the antibiotics concerned.

   
Q12. How do we know whether the eggs we bought from the market is free from antibiotics residue?
   

A12.

There is no way of knowing the eggs are free from antibiotics. The only way is to test them in the laboratory.

   
Q13. Are the eggs we buy from the market or vendor every week safe to consume?
   

A13.

The eggs purchased from the market or vendors are safe to be consumed s long as they are fresh and appears normal.

   
Q14. How long is the shelf life of table eggs stored at room temperature?
   

A14.

Table eggs kept at room temperature is best consumed within 1 week of purchase. They can however remain safe to cook and eat up to two weeks.

   
Q15. What are the nutritional values of an egg?
   

A15.

Table 2:

Nutrition Statement

Nutrient or Other Component

Quantity in One Large Egg*

Percent of Daily Value**

Calories

75

4

Total Fat

5 g

8

Saturated Fat

1.5 g

8

Cholesterol

211.5 mg

70

Protein

6.3 g

13

Vitamin A

243 IU

5

Vitamin D

17 IU

4

Vitamin E

0.75 mg

3

Vitamin B12

0.6 mcg

10

Vitamin B6

0.07 mg

4

Folate

24 mcg

6

Thiamin

0.031 mg

2

Riboflavin

0.24 mg

14

Phosphorus

95 mg

10

Zinc

0.55 mg

3

Iron

0.91 mg

5

Choline

125 mg

22

Lutein & Zeaxanthin

165 mcg

n/a

* Large eggs are the size most commonly sold in the U.S. Eggs of larger or smaller sizes contain proportionally greater or lesser amounts of nutrients.

** Based on 2,000 calorie intake; for adults and children greater than or equal to 4 years of age.

Source: www.aeb.org

   

C.

Pork

   
Q1. Are pigs being given antibiotics that are used for treating humans? If so what are the effects on pork eaters?
   

A1.

Prudent use of antibiotic to treat only sick animals is the key principle. Safe pork comes from healthy animal. With proper antibiotic withdrawal period, the antibiotic residue is minimal, and it won’t create human health problems. The government is currently implementing product registration for drugs used in animals, eventually only registered antibiotics will be allowed to be used.

   
Q2. Is it safe to eat pig liver, stomach and intestines?
   

A2.

The internal organs of pigs are rich in minerals, vitamins and fat. They are safe to be eaten in moderation and balanced with the intake of other foods.

   
Q3. In the old days, my mother likes to eat liver, it contains high Iron and nutrient. But now, people said it is not safe to eat liver, why?
   

A3.

Eating liver when there is no other protein source available is relatively safe. Since liver has a higher content of minerals and vitamins as well as fat its intake should be reduced proportionately with the intake of other protein foods.

   
Q4. Is organic pork in the market really organic? How can consumers be sure?
   

A4.

There is no standard definition of “organic” in terms of food labeling in this country so any claims of being organic should be taken at face value.

   
Q5. The color of roasted minced pork (“Rou Gan”) is bright red, has it been added with coloring agent? Is it safe to eat?
   

A5.

“Rou Gan” may contain certain coloring agent. But usually the coloring agent is safe and approved by the controlling authority - the Food Safety Division of the Ministry of Health.

   
Q6. A branded pork supplier is claiming they do not use beta-agonist. How true is this? And how can it be differentiated from other pork?
   

A6

Claims made on food labels are subject to the labeling laws of the country and the people responsible for the labels are liable for its accuracy. Freedom from beta agonists can only be verified by laboratory tests. Any company making such claim should get an authorized laboratory to issue the certification on the claim. As a consumer, you can ask from the shop or company for proof of their claim.

   
Q7. Can we know if pork contains beta agonist or not by just looking grossly on the meat?
   

A7.

Pork from pigs fed with illegal beta agonists cannot be identified by looking grossly at the meat. It can only be confirmed by chemical tests in a laboratory.

   
Q8. Are pig farmers still using B-agonists in pig diet? How can consumers be sure?
   

A8.

According to the Pig Farmers Association self surveillance program which is done twice a year, and recognized by the Department of Veterinary Services (DVS), the incidence of using illegal beta agonist is now minimal, with only few cases detected out of 565 farms inspected. We still continue to educate our members not to use illegal compound and aims to reach zero misuse eventually.

If in doubt, call DVS hotline at 03-88702000

   
Q9. Are pig farmers castrating pigs chemically? What are the effects on pork eaters?
   

A9.

Pig farmers castrate their male piglets to remove the boar taint in pork. Castration is mostly done mechanically using a knife and not by the use of chemicals. Castration using a vaccine is however approved for use in this country. This is not considered chemical castration.

   

D.

General Questions

   
Q1 What are the nutrition facts of meat from different species?
   

A1

The information is as below:

 

Source: FAO (2007), Meat Process Technology

Ritma Prestasi SB
BULLETIN BOARD

04 July 17

台湾屏东科技大学短期培训课程

决定将于2017年9月4日至10日假该大学举办一项为期5天的培训养猪课程。

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